Book Review: High Performance MySQL and thoughts on digesting dense technical books
I just finished reading “High Performance MySQL” by Baron Schwartz, Peter Zaitsev and Vadim Tkachenko. The printed version is 790 pages. I read this book daily, sequentially… and it took me over a month to finish it. Absorbing the information was a little bit like drinking from a firehose. In this post I want to focus the content but also my thoughts on digesting dense technical books.
I’m working my way through a pile of technical books as part of a new years resolution to “level up” in software engineering. Simultaneously, I’m working on enhancing on my concentration abilities. While reading HPM this past month, I progressively got better at catching myself “changing the channel” in my brain. Whenever some thought or idea would enter my brain while I was working on downloading the information in this book I would actively fight back and restore my focus. Over the month I got a lot better at this. I subjectively feel like my mind tries less often to “change the channel” and when it does I find it easier to overcome the urge. My learning pace quickened and I’m eager to see how I perform when I dive into the next book in my queue.
start and end time for 10 page “blocks”
Quantifying my progress by dividing the book into increments of 10 pages helped. I noted the start and end time for every block. Initially, my average time spent per block of 10 pages was approximately 1 hour. After reading 1⁄2 the book I noticed a 25-50% increase in how quickly I could read and comprehend 10 page blocks. I attribute this to fewer incidents of “changing the channel” in my mind and thus being able to focus on the text for a greater percentage of my time. To read the entire book and comprehend it well probably took on the order of 70-80 hours.
I took a pretty comprehensive database class back in college and I’m no stranger to RDBMSs but my work as a “full stack” web application software engineer over the past few years has precluded me from doing a really “deep dive” into MySQL for awhile. A primary goal of reading HPM was to build my tree trunk of understanding so that I could build better software that makes use of MySQL.
The third edition was published in 2012, around the time of MySQL 5.5, so some of the information is out of date. I found myself constantly googling claims made throughout the book thinking “is that still the case?” Things move quickly in the world of software so often the answer to my question was: no. That being said, much of the information is still good even 8 years since publication. High Performance MySQL is still worth a read for anyone that’s looking to go deep in their understanding. The authors, being as knowledgeable as they are, are foretelling in many instances. For instance: the MySQL query cache (chapter 7), now deprecated and removed as of MySQL8, was always a bit problematic and difficult to scale. The authors discuss this in detail and as a result I feel pretty informed why it was formerly a part of MySQL and is no longer.
Being an 800 page book, the information covered is enormous and whatever I can talk about in this post will be a random tiny sample. My guess is most engineers have questions like “How can I write more performant queries” and “How to optimize for indexes” and “How can I diagnose slow queries” and “What’s the most optimal schema design for my data and querying needs.” From reading this book I feel I can provide more confident answers to these questions. That’s in large part to the detailed explanations of B-Tree+ indexes, covering indexes, hash indexes, clustering indexes, composite indexes, query parsing, index selectivity, selective denormalization strategies, MySQL statistics and logging, etc.
The book even recommends other books for guidance on how to go deeper. One recommended book I plan to read is “Relational Database Index Design and the Optimizers” by Mike Leach and Tapio Lahdenmaki. I particularly thought the “3 star” ranking system for quantifying the utility of indexes was interesting.
3 Star Index Ranking
- 1 star: places relevant rows adjacent to each other
- 2 star: rows are sorted in the order the query needs
- 3 star: contains all columns needed (a “covering” index)
My top takeaways
The book covers scaling in great detail. Both scaling up and scaling out (vertical/horizontal scaling) through replication, partitioning and sharding. With intelligent adaptation of these tools, the authors explain how MySQL can scale to match the needs of giant services like Facebook or Wikipedia.
Most applications will never need to scale beyond a single database server. On modern hardware MySQL can perform tens of thousands to millions of queries per second, varying widely based on factors like read/write workload balance, indexing, etc. (Percona Sysbench Benchmarks). Scaling “up” or increasing server resources like I/O capacity, memory, CPU, network is the easiest option for scaling and thus should be the first option employed. The typical next step in scaling is setting up read replicas for an increase in read capacity. After that, “functional partitioning” and then sharding can aid in “scaling out.”
Backups and Recovery
Also covered, backups and recovery. Naturally the database and the data within is an incredibly critical part of any system. Having backups and restoring from those backups is important. But creating backups can be time and resource intensive, and restoring from backups can be complex. HPM explains the differences and pros and cons of using logical or binary backups. It also explains the folly of believing your replica or snapshots can be a backup. There are many tools that can be useful for creating and restoring from backups, HPM explains these in detail.
HPM also covers features of Linux operating systems like LVM snapshots and how this is useful for creating “online” backups that don’t interrupt OLTP workloads.
HPM explains point-in-time recovery, or the process of restoring the last full backup and then replaying the binary log from that time forward (sometimes called “roll-forward recovery”).
I found the idea of “delayed replication” or intentionally having a delayed replica for use in recovery very interesting. If you have a delayed replica and you notice an accident before the delayed replica executes the offending statement it can make recovery much faster.
Optimizing performance via schema design, indexing and query design
Chapters 4, 5 and 6 probably contain the information that’s most sought after by users of MySQL who want to get the most performance out of their database.
Sometimes it makes sense to strategically denormalize data to suit querying needs, or use cache tables to avoid continuously computing expensive statistics.
Using appropriate column datatypes can drastically improve performance as well. General advice is to use the smallest datatype possible for every column and to avoid NULL (p116). BLOB/TEXT columns almost always result in using on-disk temporary tables for sorting operations and therefore can have serious detrimental impact on performance and should be avoided if possible.
Indexing is a complex topic and HPM breaks it down nicely. HPM explains the differences between clustered indexes and secondary indexes. Often, if you limit the number of columns returned by your query you can make use of “covering indexes” which avoid the need for performing disk IO (p177).
Also explained is the subtle differences between redundant and duplicate indexes. Duplicate indexes are wasteful and should be avoided but redundant indexes can sometimes be useful.
Column order in indexes is also important and can aid queries or affect insert performance. HPM explains how to quantify index column selectivity and design indexes accordingly by choosing an optimal column index order.
Unused indexes are dead weight and HPM describes tools and strategies that can be used to identify and remove them.
MySQL executes queries using a nontrivial process and understanding this can help users write queries that MySQL can execute more efficiently.
The query optimizer turns queries into “query execution plans” for the database. The optimizer is “cost-based” and uses statistics about the data to try and predict which execution plan will be least expensive.
Sorting operations can potentially be very expensive. Indexes can be very helpful for sorting but when it’s not possible to use them MySQL must sort the rows itself. It can do this either in memory using the sort buffer, or on disk. The data to be returned determines which type of sorting MySQL will perform.
Advanced users can provide “hints” to the optimizer to control the query plan.
The appendix contains a very detailed explanation of how to use
understand what plan the query optimizer will come up with.
From the book:
“Optimization always requires a three-pronged approach: stop doing things, do them fewer times, and do them more quickly.”
Lastly the authors are closely tied with Percona, a drop in replacement for MySQL. Throughout the book they highlight the utility of their company’s tools (such as percona-toolkit) and the advantages/differences of their “flavor” of MySQL.
High Performance MySQL was a great read and I’d recommend it to anyone looking to enhance their “tree trunk of understanding” on MySQL/RDBMSs. It’s old and partially dated but still worthwhile to purchase. Through reading this book I feel my focusing abilities have been enhanced and I’m looking foward to tackling the next book in my queue.